Amel’ko, Admiral Nikolai. In the Interest of the Fleet and State. Moscow: Nauka, 2003.

Bartlett, Donald L., and James B. Steele.  Howard Hughes: His Life and Madness. New York: W.W. Norton, 1979.

Bauer, Robert F., with F. Jay Schempf. Roughneckin’. Charleston, SC: BookSurge, 2009.

Benford, Harry. Naval Architecture for Non-Naval Architects. Jersey City, NJ: The Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 2006.

Broad, William J. The Universe Below. New York: Touchstone, 1997.

Bucher, Lloyd M., USN, with Mark Rascovich, Bucher: My Story. New York: Doubleday, 1970.

Burleson, Clyde W. The Jennifer Project. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1977.

Burns, Thomas S. The Secret War for the Ocean Depths. New York: Rawson Associates Publishers, Inc, 1978.

Colby, William. Honorable Men. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978.

———. 30 Ans de C.I.A. Paris: Presse de la Renaissance, 1978.

Craven, John P. The Silent War. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2001.

Dobrynin, Anatoly. In Confidence. New York: Times Books, 1995.

Drosnin, Michael. Citizen Hughes. New York: Broadway Books, 1985. Digital edition.

Dunham, Roger C. Spy Sub. Annapolis, MD: Naval Institute Press, 1996.

Dygalo, Viktor. A Rear Admiral’s Notes. Moscow: Kuchkovo Pole, 2009.

Feldstein, Mark. Poisoning the Press: Richard Nixon, Jack Anderson, and the Rise of Washington's Scandal Culture. New York: Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2010

Ford, Gerald R. A Time to Heal. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Gates, Robert M. From the Shadows. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006.

Hack, Richard. Hughes: The Private Diaries, Memos and Letters. Beverly Hills, CA: Phoenix Books, 2007.

Helvarg, David. Blue Frontier. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 2001.

Hersh, Seymour M. The Price of Power: Kissinger in the White House. New York: Summit Books, 1983.

Huchthausen Peter A., and Alexandre Sheldon-Duplaix. Hide and Seek. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 2009.

Hutchinson, Robert. Jane’s Submarines: War Beneath the Waves from 1776 to the Present Day. New York: HarperCollins, 2001.

Johnson, Clarence L “Kelly.” with Maggie Smith, Kelly: More than My Share of It All. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Press, 1985.

Krutein, Eva and Manfred. Amerika? America! Albuquerque, NM: Amador Press, 1997.

Mero, John L. The Mineral Resource of the Sea. Volume 1 of Elsevier Oceanography Series. New York: Elsevier, 1965.

Podvig, Pavel. Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2001.

Polmar, Norman, and Michael White. Project Azorian. Annapolis, MD; Naval Institute Press, 2010.

Reed, W. Craig. Red November. New York: William Morrow, 2010.

Rich, Ben R., and Leo Janos. Skunk Works. New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1994.

Richelson, Jeffrey T. The US Intelligence Community. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2012.

———. The Wizards of Langley. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2002.

Riebling, Mark. Wedge. New York: Knopf, 1994.

Romney, Carl. Recollections. Bloomington, IN: Author House, 2012). Digital edition.

Rutten, M.D., R. John, Deep Ocean Mining Project. Bloomington, IN: iUniverse, Inc, 2012.

Sederberg, Arelo C. Hughesworld: The Strange Life and Death of an American Legend. (NP: iUniverse, 2013. 

Sewell, Kenneth, with Clint Richardson. Red Star Rogue. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2005.

Sharp, David H. The CIA’s Greatest Covert Operation. Lawrence, KS; University of Kansas Press, 2012.

Sontag, Sherry and Christopher Drew. Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage. New York: Public Affairs, 1998.

Rule, Bruce. Why the USS Scorpion (SSN-589) Was Lost: Death of a Submarine in the North Atlantic. Ann Arbor, MI: Nimble Books, 2011.

Spassky, I. D., ed. Istoriya Otechestvennogo Sudostroeniya [History of Indigenous Shipbuilding]. Volume V, 1946–1991. St Petersburg: Sudostroenie, 1996.

Varner, Roy, and Wayne Collier. A Matter of Risk. New York: Random House, 1977.

Werth, Barry. 31 Days. New York: Anchor Books, 2006.

Woods, Randall B. Shadow Warrior. New York: Basic Books, 2013.


Aarons, Leroy F. “Glomar Sets Test Cruise.” Washington Post, April 10, 1975.

Alexin, V. "Better Late Than Never." Independent Military Review, September 17, 1999. This is an article on the ceremony to honor the K-129 crew.

Arnold, Martin. “Colby Tells Publishers That CIA Is Jeopardized by Sensational Headlines.” New York Times, April 8, 1975.

Baldwin, Jack O. “Secret Hughes Barge on Way to Catalina.” Independent (Long Beach, California), January 9, 1974.

“Behind the Great Submarine Snatch.” Newsweek, December 6, 1976.

Belair, Jr., Felix. “S.E.C Staff Finds Data About Glomar Misleading.” New York Times, April 1, 1975.

Benson, Bruce. “Hughes mineral ship’s at Lahaina.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser, August 17, 1974.

———. “Mystery Ship Ships Anchorage.” Honolulu Star-Advertiser, August 29, 1974.

Boyarsky, Bill. “Why Editors Withheld Details on Sub.” Los Angeles Times, March 20, 1975.

Broad, William. “Navy Has Long Had Secret Subs For Deep-Sea Spying, Experts Say.” New York Times, February 7, 1994.

———. "Russia Says U.S. Got Sub's Atom Arms."  New York Times, June 20, 1993.

Chriss, Nicholas C., and Jerry Cohen, “’Good Old Boys’ Raised Russian Sub.” Washington Post, April 8, 1975.

———. “Sub Recovery: Anatomy of a Secret Mission.” Los Angeles Times, April 7, 1975.

“C.I.A. Asked Tax Assessor’s Aid on Ship.” Special to the New York Times, New York Times, April 4, 1974.

“CIA’s Mission Impossible.” Newsweek, March 31, 1975.

“CIA Plan Disclosed In Glomar Incident.” New York Times, October 26, 1977.

“CIA Rebuffs Request in Trial for Data on a Hughes Burglary.” New York Times, January 6, 1976.

Claiborne, William, and George Lardner, Jr. “Colby Called Glomar Case ‘Weirdest Conspiracy.’” Washington Post, November 5, 1977.

Clarity, James F. “Soviet is Silent on Sub Salvaging.” New York Times, March 20, 1975.

Cohen, Fritzi. “The Unanswered Questions of the Glomar Explorer.” Covert Action, no. 9 (June 1980).

Cohen, Jerry, and George Reasons. “CIA Recovers Part of Russian Sub.” Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1975.

Colby, William, and Richard Helms. “Reflections of DCls Colby and Helms on the CIA’S ‘Time of Troubles.’” CIA Oral History Archives. Studies in Intelligence 51, no. 3.

Craven, John P. “Technolgoy and the Law of the Sea.” Louisiana Law Review, July 1985.

Crewdson, John M. “’CIA Men’ Sought Tax Break on Glomar.” Washington Star, June 8, 1975.

Eccles, Rear Admiral Henry E., US Navy (retired). “The Russian Maritime Threat.” Naval War College Review (June 1969).

“Engineering for Azorian.” Studies in Intelligence 23, no. 2 (Summer 1979).

Farr, William. “Mystery of Hughes’ Secret Memo Solved.” Los Angeles Times, April 4, 1975.

———. “Secret Indictment Handed Down in Hughes Burglary.” Los Angeles Times, March 19, 1975.

Fazio, Marlene. “Mining Ship is Launched.” Delaware County Daily Times, November 6, 1972.

Foley, Charles. “Hughes Mining Ocean Floor, Report Claims.” London Observer, November 5, 1973.

———. “Hughes Taking Plunge to Reap Ocean’s Riches.” London Observer, October 31, 1972.

Ford, Harold R. “William E. Colby as Director of Central Intelligence, 1973–1976” (Washington, DC: CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence, 1993; declassified 2011).

Fountain, Henry. “Dr. Donald D. Flickinger, 89, A Pioneer in Space Medicine.” New York Times, March 9, 1997.

"The Great Submarine Snatch," Time, March 31, 1975.

Hersh, Seymour. "C.I.A. Salvage Ship Brought Up Part of Soviet Sub Lost in 1968, Failed to Raise Atom Missiles,  New York Times, March 19, 1975.

———. “Human Error is Cited in ’74 Glomar Failure.” New York Times


———. “Participant Tells of C.I.A Ruse to Hide Glomar Project.” New York Times, December 10, 1976.

Holles, Everett R. “Russian Spy Ship Shadowed.” New York Times, September 14, 1975.

Horrock, Nicholas M. “CIA Ends Plan to Raise Soviet Sub.” New York Times, January 14, 1976.

———. “CIA Reported Pressing S.E.C. to Curb Global Marine Inquiry.” April 27, 1975.

Hougen, Keith. “Manganese Riches off Hawaii Await Miners.” Honolulu Star-Bulletin, August 30, 1974.

Howard, Lt. John. “Fixed Sonar Systems: the History and Future of the Underwater Silent Sentinel.” Submarine Review (April 2011).

“Hughes Glomar Explorer Begins Sea Tests of Mining Systems.” Ocean Industry, March 1974.

“Hughes Mystery Barge Slips Down the Coast.” Santa Cruz Sentinel (Santa Cruz, California), January 8, 1974.

"Human Error Is Cited in '74 Glomar Failure,"  New York Times, December 9, 1976.

Hurt, Henry. “Nic Shadrin: The Spy Who Never Came Back.” article condensed from a book, 1981.

“In Memoriam: John Parangosky, National Reconnaissance Pioneer.” National Reconnaissance, date unknown.

 “John Parangosky.” Nevada Aerospace Hall of Fame.

"John Parangosky Dies; Helped Manage Spy Satellite System," Washington Post, September 26, 2004

Lardner, Jr., George. “CIA Covert Action Defended.” Washington Post, April 8, 1975.

———. “Hughes Ship Tax Doubled by California.” Washington Post, June 4, 1975.

———. “SEC Reaches A Truce on CIA Projects.” Washington Post, April 9, 1975.

Lardner, Jr., George, and William Claiborne. “CIA’s Glomar ‘Game Plan’.” Washington Post, October 23, 1977.

Latham, Aaron. “How Glomar Really Surfaced.” New York, April 7, 1975.

Lewis, Colonel John, U.S. Army. “The Deep Sea Resources.” Naval War College Review (June 1969).

Lynch, Mark H. “FOIA and the CIA.” Center for National Security Studies, First Principles 9 (September/October 1983).

Martin, Douglas. “Jack Anderson, Investigative Journalist Who Angered the Powerful, Dies at 83.” New York Times, December 18, 2005.

McCabe, Robert. “Hughes’ Ship Slips Away from Maui.” TK, September 2, 1974.

———. “Hughes Ship Pays Return Visit to Maui.” TK, September 5, 1974.

———. “Police Asked to Watch Hughes’ Ship.” TK, September 10, 1974.

McNary, James F., Abraham F. Person, and Yilmaz F. Ozudogru. “A 7500 Ton Capacity Shipboard Completely Gimballed and Heave-Compensated Platform.” Paper No. 2630-MS, presented at Offshore Technology Conference,1976.

“Mining Sailors Heading for Ocean Depths.” Western Gear Corporation, High Gear, no. 1, 1978.

Mozgovoy, A. "The Silent Death of the K-129" ("Top Secret." No. 5). May 1, 1999.

Mueller, William Behr. “Howard Hughes, CIA, and the Incredible Glomar Explorer.” Sea Classics, September 1978.

“Navy was Recalcitrant Financier in Russian Submarine Raising Attempt.” Science, TK, 1976.

Nelson, Jack. “Administration Won’t Talk About Sub Raised by CIA.” Los Angeles Times, March 20, 1975.

Nocera, Joseph. “Le Couvert Blown: William Colby en Francais.” Washington Monthly, November 1980.

“Now Howard Hughes Mines the Ocean Floor.” Business Week, June 16, 1973.

O’Leary, Jeremiah. “CIA Gets Part of Soviet Sub.” Washington Star, DATE TK.

———. “The CIA Pulls a Salvage Job on a Soviet Sub.” Washington Star, March 19, 1975.

———. “Silence Reigns on Soviet Sub as U.S. Awaits Détente Impact.” Washington Star, March 20,1975.

O’Toole, Thomas. “CIA Raised Warheads, Sources Say.” Washington Post, March 21, 1975.

———. “Glomar Hunt Revealed Soviet Submarine Code.” Washington Post, TK DATE.

Parker, Ann. “Knowing the Enemy, Anticipating the Threat.” Lawrence Livermore Lab, Science & Technology Review (July/August 2002).

Peer, Elizabeth, with Ann Ray Martin. “Salvaging the Sub Story.” Newsweek, March 31, 1975.

Phelan, James. “An Easy Burglary Led to the Disclosure of Hughes-C.I.A. Plan to Salvage Soviet Sub, New York Times, March 27, 1975.

———. “C.I.A. Link to Hughes Reported Disclosed by Burglary on Coast.” New York Times, March, 14, 1975.

Phillippi, Harriett. “The Story Behind the Story: Cracking Colby’s Glomar Files.” Washington Post, November 20, 1977.

Polmar, Norman. “How Many Spy Subs?” U.S. Navy Proceedings, December 1996.

Poteat, S. Eugene. “The Secret Recipe for Good Intelligence.”

———. “The Use and Abuse of Intelligence: An Intelligence Provider’s Perspective.”

Project Azorian: The Story of the Hughes Glomar Explorer.” Studies in Intelligence (Fall 1985).

Quale, Alan. “The Secret Revealed: What Will Barge Do?” The Times (San Mateo, California) January 8, 1974.

Robarge, David. “The Glomar Explorer in Film and Print.” Studies in Intelligence 56, no. 1 (March 2012).

Roberts, Jeffrey. “What Happened to Glomar Explorer.” Ocean Engineering, December 1976.

Ruffner, Kevin C. and the CIA History Staff. “CORONA: America’s First Satellite Program.” From the “Cold War Records Series.” Center for the Studies in Intelligence, 1995.

Rule, Bruce. “Acoustic Detections of the Loss of the GOLF II Class Soviet SSB K-129.” June 30, 2013.

———. “Acoustics Has the Last Word (for Some) on the Loss of the Soviet Submarine K-129 on 11 Mar 68.” October 11, 2013.

———. “Advancing an Understanding of Why the Soviet Submarine K-129 Was Lost.” February 20, 2015.

129.” November 27, 2013.

Sampson, Richard A. “The Hughes Glomar Explorer Project.” Journal of the OpSec Professional Society, 2nd edition (1995).

Sansweet, Stephen J. “Vessel Used in Bid to Lift Russian Sub Wasn’t on Tax Rolls.” Wall Street Journal, April 4, 1975

Schudel, Matt. “Robert Maheu, 90; Tycoon's Aide, CIA Spy” Washington Post, August 6, 2008.

“Security: Hidden Shield for Project Azorian.” Studies in Intelligence 22, no. 3 (Fall 1978).

Seib. Charles B. “The Confusing Coverage of the Submarine Story.” Washington Post, March 27, 1975.

Shearer, Lloyd. “Parade and Project Jennifer.” Parade, May 11, 1975.

Shtyrov, Anatolii. “Tragediya PL K-129. Za kulisami operatsii Jennifer” [“The Tragedy of Submarine K-129. Behind the Scenes of Operation Jennifer”]. INSERT DATE. This is an online article/blog post in response to a 2008 NTV film about the loss of the K-129, retrieved in Russian at

“Sightseers Gape At Glomar Barge.” New York Times, August 31, 1975.

“SOSUS: The ‘Secret Weapon’ of Undersea Surveillance.” Undersea Warfare 7, no. 2 (Winter 2005).

Steinbeck, John. “High Drama of Bold Thrust through Ocean Floor.” Life, April 14, 1961.

Stilwell, Paul. “The Recollections of Captain Harry A. Jackson, US Navy (Retired).” The Naval Institute, 2002.

“St. Louis Hunts Hughes Theft Suspect.” Special to the New York Times, New York Times, March 21, 1975.

“The Submarine from ‘Grave Bay.’” Izvestiya, July 4, 1992.

Sullivan, Walter. “Glomar Explorer, Built to Raise Soviet Sub, Faces Decision: To Be Scrapped or to Be a Deep-Sea Driller.” New York Times, February 26, 1976.

Thomason, Robert. “CIA Cover Story Gives Birth to Deep Ocean Mining.” DC Bureau, March 10, 2014.

“Trying to ‘Swipe’ A Russian Sub Is Just Part of the CIA Saga.” US News & World Report, March 31, 1975.

Turner, Wallace. “Publishers Offered Hughes Documents.” New York Times, April 21, 1977.

United Press International, “Navy Fund Reported Diverted to Glomar.” New York Times, February 26, 1976.

Wade, Nicholas. “Deep-Sea Salvage: Did CIA Use Mohole Techniques to Raise Sub?” Science, May 1975.

———. “Glomar Explorer: CIA’s Salvage Ship a Giant Leap in Ocean Engineering.” Science, June 1976.

Webster, Bayard. “Sea-Mine Rivals Did Not Suspect Sub.” New York Times, March 22, 1975.

Weir, Gary E. “The American Sound Surveillance System: Using the Ocean to Hunt Soviet Submarines, 1950-1961.” International Journal of Naval History (August 2006).

Welzenbach, Donald E. “Science and Technology: Origins of a Directorate.” Studies in Intelligence 30, no. 2 (1986).

“The White Elephant that the CIA Owns.” Business Week, December 22, 1975.

Winfrey, Lee, and Mike Leary. “Hughes Builds Ship to Mine Ocean Wealth.” Philadelphia Inquirer, May 13, 1973.

Zeman, Ray. “CIA Got Tax Secrecy for Hughes Ship.” Washington Post, April 3, 1975.


Azorian: The Raising of the K-129. Directed by Michael White. 2011. Studio not specified.

Burial at Sea, September 4, 1974. CIA footage of the burial at sea of remains of six Soviet submariners. via YouTube.

Propavshaya submarina. Tragediya K-129 [Vanished Submarine The Tragedy of the K-129]. Directed by Aleksei Bystritsky. VGTRK, 2012. Translated from Russian by Sergey Levchin. Available online at

Court documents

Affidavit of R. Curtis Crooke. County of Los Angeles, State of California, Central District of California, Civil No. 75-2752-R.

Affidavit of George F. Kucera. County of Los Angeles, State of California, Central District of California, Civil No. 75-2752-R.

Affidavit of Steven T. Schoenbaum. County of Los Angeles, State of California, Central District of California, Civil No. 75-2752-R.

Affidavit of David Brice Toy. County of Los Angeles, State of California, Central District of California, Civil No. 75-2752-R.

Affidavit of Philip E. Watson. County of Los Angeles, State of California, Central District of California, Civil No. 75-2752-R.

Harriet Ann Phillippi vs Central Intelligence Agency, United States Court of Appeals, Washington, DC. Civil Action No. 75-01265.

United States of America vs County of Los Angeles; Philip E. Watson, Los Angeles County Tax Assessor. Civil Action No. 75-2752R. January 16, 1976.

press releases

“New Joint Venture Formed to Mine Deep Sea Nodules.” News release. Lockheed Missiles & Space.

“Sun Ship Delivers Deep Ocean Mining Vessel.” Sun Shipbuilding & Dry Dock press release, July 31, 1973.

“Hughes Tool announces “utilizing Lockheed Missiles & Space Company, Inc.” News release. Hughes Tool Company, January 15, 1972.

us government memorandums and documents

“Biographical Profile of John Parangosky.” from CIA history department, date unknown.

Memorandum from the Director of Central Intelligence [Helms] to the Chairman of the 40 Committee [Kissinger], Washington, DC, September 14, 1972. Source: Central Intelligence Agency, Office of the Director of Central Intelligence, Job 80M01066A: E[xecutive] R[egistry] Subject Files, Executive Registry Subject Files—1975 JENNIFER. Top Secret; JENNIFER.

Memorandum from the Chairman of the United States Intelligence Board [Colby] to the Chairman of the 40 Committee [Kissinger], Washington, DC, May 23, 1974. Source: National Security Council Files, Nixon Administration Intelligence Files, AZORIAN Project. Top Secret; JENNIFER [codeword not declassified]; AZORIAN.

Memorandum to the Chairman of the 40 Committee [Kissinger], Washington, DC, May 28, 1974. Source: National Security Council Files, Nixon Administration Intelligence Files, AZORIAN Project. Top Secret; JENNIFER [codewords not declassified]; AZORIAN.

Memorandum from Rob Roy Ratliff of the National Security Council Staff to Secretary of State Kissinger, Washington, June 3, 1974. Source: National Security Council Files, Nixon Administration Intelligence Files, AZORIAN Project. Top Secret; JENNIFER.

Memorandum for the Record, 40 Committee Meeting in White House Situation Room, June 5,1974.

Memorandum for the Record, Washington, July 1, 1974. Source: National Security Council Files, Nixon Administration Intelligence Files, 40 Committee Meetings, Aerial Recon. Papers, 1974. Top Secret; JENNIFER.

Memorandum for the Record, Operator Matador, 40 Committee Meeting, January 22, 1975.

Memorandum of Conversation, February 7, 1975, 5:22–5:55 p.m. Confidential, Excised copy. Archival source: Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. National Security Adviser—Memoranda of Conversation, box 9, February 7, 1975

Memorandum of Conversation, "[Jennifer?] Meeting,"March 19, 1975, 11:20 a.m., Secret, Excised copy, Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. National Security Adviser--Memoranda of Conversation, box 10, March 19, 1975—Ford, Schlesinger, Colby, Buchen, Marsh, Rumsfeld.

Memorandum from the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs [Kissinger] to President Ford [subject: Soviet Query on Submarine Salvage], Washington, April 2, 1975. Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library. National Security Adviser, Staff Assistants: Peter W. Rodman Files, 1974–1977, Box 1, Subject File, Glomar Explorer.

Memorandum for the Record, Meeting of the President’s Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board, 1030 to 1230, Washington, DC, April 3, 1975.

Memorandum from the President’s Assistant for National Security Affairs [Scowcroft] to President Ford [disposal of the Glomar Explorer], Washington DC, August 28, 1976.

Notice of Availability for Donation of the Test Craft Ex-SEA SHADOW (IX– 529) and Hughes Mining Barge (HMB– 1). Federal Register/Vol. 71, No. 178/Thursday, September 14, 2006.

United States Government classified Government Contract No. S-HU-0900, December 5, 1972


“629 Golf.” Specifications. Federation of American Scientists. Weapons of Mass Destruction. WMD Around the World.

ASME Historic Mechanical Engineering Landmark ceremony, official event program, Houston, TX, July 20, 2006.

Eulogy for John R. Graham by A. J. Field, August 16, 1974.

Interviews with Leonard J. Aikens and Kirk Peel, Glomar Explorer crewmen, by James Steele, March 15, 1975. Courtesy of the Bartlett & Steele Archive, American University, Washington, DC.

Project Azorian contract between Global Marine, Hughes Tool Company, and the United States Government, November 13, 1970.

Securities and Exchange Commission, Global Marine, Inc., 10-K for 1971, April 5, 1972.

Sun Shipbuilding invitation for “Family Day, featuring the launching of the Hughes Glomar Explorer.” Sun Hull 661, November 4, 1972.